Affirming a district court order dismissing a putative class action, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals has held that Taco Bell’s policy of requiring employees to eat employer-discounted meals in the restaurant does not convert the meal period into “on duty” time such that the meal period becomes compensable under California law. Rodriguez v. Taco Bell Corporation, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 19825 (9th Cir. July 18, 2018). Please find the rest of this article in our Wage & Hour Blog here.
Congress recently passed the 2017 Tax Cuts & Jobs Act which includes Internal Revenue Code §162(q). Specifically, § 162(q) provides:
- No deduction is allowed for any settlement or payment related to sexual harassment or sexual abuse if the settlement or payment is subject to a nondisclosure agreement.
- No deduction is permissible for attorneys’ fees related to a confidential sexual harassment settlement or payment.
These payments remain tax-deductible, however, if they are not subject to a nondisclosure agreement.
Section 162(q) is relevant because most, if not all, settlement agreements tend to include confidentiality or nondisclosure clauses. Ostensibly, employers confront whether to forego tax benefits in the interest of maintaining confidentiality or deduct the associated fees as business expenses. The provision appears aimed at preventing companies and their executives from avoiding public scrutiny about unlawful sexual conduct in the workplace.
There are several questions left unanswered by this new provision:
- What happens to the tax deduction for payments that settle more than one kind of employment claim? Employers are likely to structure settlements of multiple claims with an allocation of only a small amount to the sexual harassment claim in a non-confidential settlement agreement, with the remainder allocated to other claims under a separate, confidential settlement agreement.
- Is the non-deductibility of attorneys’ fees under § 162(q) only applicable to employers or to employees/victims as well? Whether the Legislature provides guidance regarding how to navigate this new provision remains to be seen.
Given the ambiguity that remains with respect to settlement of sexual harassment claims, employers should seek counsel in settling these claims. For more information, please contact Anna Choi, Hazel Poei or the Jackson Lewis attorney with whom you regularly work.
California has enacted new legislation aimed at clarifying its law banning an employer from inquiring about a job applicant’s salary history information.
Assembly Bill 168 (codified as Labor Code Section 432.3) prohibits employers from seeking salary history of applicants for employment. Designed to eradicate the wage gap, AB 168 also requires employers to provide applicants, upon reasonable request, with the pay scale for the position. Please find the rest of this article in our Pay Equity Advisor Blog here.
Cal/OSHA just published a Fact Sheet and a Poster regarding Cal/OSHA’s new requirement for covered employers to create and maintain a Hotel Housekeeping Musculoskeletal Injury Program (“MIPP”) and also train their housekeepers with respect to the MIPP. We previously discussed California’s new requirement in our blog on June 25, 2018 called, California’s Hotel Housekeeping Standard: Ready or Not, Here it Comes.
By July 1, covered employers must establish, implement, and maintain a MIPP that addresses risk factors specific to housekeepers. The written MIPP may be incorporated into a California Injury Illness or Prevention Program (“IIPP”) or kept as a separate program. In addition to the MIPP, supervisors and housekeepers must be trained in:
- Signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal injuries;
- The elements of the MIPP;
- The process for reporting safety and health concerns without fear of reprisal;
- Good body mechanics and the use of controls in the workplace;
- The importance of reporting symptoms early; and
- Practice of using identified controls and tools.
Training must occur when the MIPP is first established, to all new housekeepers and supervisors, to all housekeepers given new assignments for which training was not previously provided, and at least annually thereafter. To ensure compliance with the new standard, covered employers in California should develop their MIPP and train housekeepers on its contents. In addition, employers should plan to begin conducting worksite evaluations to ensure that they are completed by October 1, 2018.
If you have any questions regarding Cal/OSHA’s new requirement, please feel free to contact Bradford T. Hammock in our OSHA group or Jonathan Siegel or the attorney you normally work with at Jackson Lewis.
California Assembly Bill 3247 amends the California Arbitration Act (Cal. Code Civ. Proc. § 1280 et seq.) by replacing the current term revocation with rescission. The bill removes any potential ambiguity by inserting the proper terminology.
On July 16, 2018, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law Assembly Bill 3247 (“AB 3247”), which amends the California Arbitration Act (Cal. Code Civ. Proc. § 1280 et seq.), specifically, section 1281.2 of the California Code of Civil Procedure. Effective January 1, 2019, section 1281.2 will now state that a court may not enforce an arbitration agreement if “grounds exist for rescission of the agreement, [emphasis added]” as opposed to the prior language which called for “grounds [to] exist for the revocation of the agreement [emphasis added].” (Assem. Bill No. 3247 (2017-2018 Reg. Sess.) The bill also makes other non-substantive changes.
Existing law currently requires a court, on petition of a party to an arbitration agreement alleging: (1) the existence of a written agreement to arbitrate a controversy and (2) that a party to the agreement refuses to arbitrate the controversy, to order the petitioner and the respondent to arbitrate the controversy if the court determines that an agreement to arbitrate exists, unless the court makes other determinations, including, among other things, that grounds exist for the revocation of the agreement. (Code Civ. Proc. § 1281.2.)
As the California Supreme Court observed in Armendariz v. Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Inc. (2000) 24 Cal. 4th 83, 98, revocation of a contract is a misnomer because only offers to create a contract can be revoked. If an offer is revoked, there is by definition no contract or agreement. Once a contract has been formed, it is only undone by rescission. Armendariz was further cited in the Assembly Committee analysis. (Assem. Com. on Judiciary, Analysis of Assem. Bill No. 3247 (2017-2018 Reg. Sess.) as amended April 30, 2018.) Moreover, if the current revocation language is taken literally, there may be situations where a court upholds an arbitration agreement when grounds for rescission exist (such as fraud, misrepresentation, mistake, or a lack of capacity to content), but which do not also constitute grounds for revocation. AB 3247 also resolves that potential issue.
Please contact Jessica Armijo with any questions or the Jackson Lewis attorney you work with normally.
If passed, California Senate Bill 937: Lactation Accommodation, will require employers to provide a lactation room, or location, in close proximity to the employee’s work space, and it must include prescribed features such as access to a sink and refrigerator. SB 937 also would deem denial of reasonable break time or adequate space to express milk a failure to provide a rest period in accordance with state law. Please find the rest of this article in our Disability, Leave & Health Management Blog here.
On July 16, 2018, Governor Brown signed into law SB 1500 which expanded protections for members of the Armed Forces of the United States and to members of the Federal Reserve components of the Armed Forces.
The new law makes clear that no business and other covered establishments may deny a member of the Armed Forces of the United States entrance when they are wearing their uniform. In the news, there have been different stories of businesses choosing to deny service or entrance for certain reasons. This new California law has made it clear that a business cannot deny entrance merely because a member of the Armed Forces is wearing their uniform.
This law also extends protections from discrimination, including discharge from employment, to members of the Federal Reserve components of the Armed Forces of the United States and members of the State Military Reserve. California law already protects members of the military or naval forces of the state or of the United States or a person ordered to military duty or training or by reason of being a member of the military or naval forces of the state or U.S.
Employers who regularly deal with the public and others may consider notifying their supervisors and employees about this new development. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Jonathan A. Siegel or the Jackson Lewis attorney you normally deal with.
In responding to claim of harassment, discrimination or retaliation based on protected categories, California employers must timely respond to and thoroughly investigate workplace complaints to avoid exposure. On July 9, 2018, a California Court of Appeal court found an employer liable where an employee was mocking a person for having a stutter on more than five, but less than fifteen occasions over a two-year period from 2006 to 2008. In Caldera v. Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, et al., the plaintiff brought suit after allegedly being subject to jokes over a two-year period of time. The jury awarded plaintiff $500,000. The trial court, finding the jury award excessive, granted a new trial as to damages. Both parties appealed.
The Court of Appeal reversed the trial court’s decision to overturn the verdict. The Court noted that since two of the mocking incidents took place in front of several other employees and supervisors, and a psychologist testified that the mocking caused plaintiff to experience psychological disorders, a “totality of the circumstances” indicates that the harassing conduct was severe. And even though neither plaintiff nor his witnesses could remember exactly how many times plaintiff was mocked or when exactly he was subject to any mocking the court found that the employer’s culture supported the jury’s finding that the harassing conduct was also pervasive. This case underscores the importance of being proactive to workplace concerns. California jurors and courts will not tolerate harassing conduct even when specifically linked to individuals mocking an employee’s stuttering problem. Please contact Jackson Lewis with any questions you may have about your harassment policies, procedures and practices.
San Francisco’s “Parity in Pay Ordinance,” prohibiting employers from inquiring about a job applicant’s salary history, took effect on July 1, 2018. This post discussed significant provisions of the ordinance as well as key considerations for employers to ensure compliance with the new regulation. Click here to read our full article regarding San Francisco’s salary history ban.
A key issue for any business facing class action litigation in response to a data breach is whether the plaintiffs, particularly consumers, will have standing to sue. Standing to sue in a data breach class action suit, largely turns on whether plaintiffs establish that they have suffered an “injury-in-fact” resulting from the data breach. Plaintiffs in data breach class actions are often not able to demonstrate that they have suffered financial or other actual damages resulting from a breach of their personal information. Instead, plaintiffs will allege that a heightened “risk of future harm” such as identity theft or fraudulent charges is enough to establish an “injury-in-fact”. Please find the rest of this article in our Workplace Privacy, Data Management & Security Blog here.